Converging Evidence

<Bahasa Indonesia>

A research by Dhani Irwanto, 22 August 2015

The story of Atlantis comes to us from Timaeus and Critias, Socratic dialogues, written in about 360 BC by Plato. There are four people at this meeting who had met the previous day to hear Socrates (ca 469 to 399 BC) describes the ideal state. Socrates wants Timaeus of Locri, Hermocrates, and Critias to tell him stories about Athens interacting with other states. The first is Critias, who talks about his great grandfather’s meeting with Solon (ca 638 to 559 BC), one of the seven sages, an Athenian poet and famous lawgiver, during a visit to Saïs, Egypt in about 590 BC. Solon had been to Egypt where priests had compared Egypt and Athens and talked about the gods and legends of both lands. One such Egyptian story is about Atlantis. The priests claimed to have access to records about Atlantis written on pillars within the temple. Getting knowledge of the Atlantic story, Solon put it into a poem, and proposed to bring it to the knowledge of the Greeks.

Plato did not hear the original story of Atlantis, but that it was instead told to Solon about 300 years prior, and that he heard it from Egyptian priests who read it from existing records. Solon was not reading the story from the Egyptian records; it was the Egyptian priests – expert in hieroglyphics – who were relating to Solon what their own temple records said about the lost Atlantis. Plato heard it from Critias who is the great grandson of Solon, so that the story passed down 3 generations prior to reaching him.

As written in the dialogues, Solon, while wrote his poem, enquired the Egyptian priest into the meaning and knowledge of the names which had been translated into their own language; then he copied them out again and translated them into Greek, by borrowing names from the Greek mythology for the Athenian people to understand. Thus, the names in the story including Poseidon, Heracles, Atlas, Athens, Egypt, Libya, Tyrrhenia, Europe and the others are all borrowed names. Unknown things to the Ancient Greeks are described in lengthy words.

Both accounts of the story of Atlantis in the Egyptian records and the Solon’s poem are not discovered. Therefore, Plato’s dialogues Timaeus and Critias contain the earliest references to Atlantis – for unknown reasons, Plato never completed Critias. These dialogues, for that reason, contain the only sources of the most complete phenotype of the Atlantis.

The author applies a similitude of “particulate inheritance model”, which is commonly used in biological sciences, where as though the phenotype of Plato’s Atlantis is inherited from the original phenotype of Egyptian records, as a continuum in a series of “generations”. In the process, the “legacy” phenotype is determined by “genotype”, “epigenetic” and “non-inherited environmental” factors from the “ancestors”. The “genotype” factors are that part (“DNA sequence”) of the “genetic makeup” of the story. The “epigenetic” factors are the phenotypic trait variations of the story that are caused by external or environmental factors. The “non-inherited environmental” factors are distortions, embellishments and embodiments of the story by the tellers. “Genetic mutation” of the story may also occur in the process. The only known now is the inherited phenotype, so that those factors are not detected, but certainly has experienced.

Atlantis CountrySlide1Slide2

The following table shows a summary of the converging evidence of the existence of Atlantis in Sundaland made by the author. Some other less important evidence are not included. The quoted terms, wherever possible, are the English translation of the terms taken from the Plato’s account, either in Greek or terms not found in Greek. Phrases in parenthesis are interpretations by the author.

These evidence are the “potsherds” in the verification of a theory using a Potsherd Model, where, the more “sherds” collected, reassembling them can give clearer representation of the “pot”. In this case, the reassembled “pot” from the “sherds” (evidence) is then compared to the descriptions by Plato (the “reference pot”) to prove the theory. It now appears from the table that the “pot” is almost fully reassembled and representative to the “reference pot”.

No

Description

Plato’s reference

Compatibility

Section in Timaeus

Section
in
Critias

A

Country of Atlantis

1

At a distant point in the “Atlantic Ocean” (Ancient Greek understanding)

24e

The Ancient Greeks understanding of the “Atlantic Ocean” was the ocean surrounding the whole Earth.

2

Larger than “Libya” and “Asia” (Asia Minor) combined (Ancient Greek understanding)

24e

108e

Sundaland area is around 2.6 million km2 (1.0 million mi2), Ancient Libya and Asia Minor combined is around 1.9 million km2 (0.7 million mi2).

3

The way to other islands

24e

The way to islands on the east of Sundaland (Nusatenggara, Sulawesi,  Maluku, Mindanao, Luzon)

4

From there might pass to opposite continent encompasses true ocean

24e

Sahul Continent (Australia and Papua combined) opposite to the islands encompassed Pacific and Indian Oceans

5

The landscape of the whole country, at the region on the side of the ocean, was very lofty and precipitous

118a

Sumatera, Java and Bali which are on the side of the Indian Ocean is occupied by mountainous regions.

6

An island located near the plain and all canals met at the city and drained into the sea, accessible by ships, vessels and boats from the sea

113c, 113e, 118d

An island in the Java Sea 11.600 years ago

7

Beyond bordering stelae, the (Ancient) Greek called them the “Stelae of Heracles”

24e, 25c

108e, 114b

Bordering monuments decorated with Kala faces, ubiquitous in Java and Bali

8

In front and inside of a sea mouth

24e, 25a

A strait between Madura and Kalimantan 11.600 years ago

9

A sea surrounded by a boundless continent, the other is a real ocean

25a

The Java Sea 11.600 years ago

10

Some islands in the sea

24e

114c

Islands in the Java Sea 11.600 years ago

11

Two-season climate – “summer” (dry) and “winter” (wet)

112d, 118e

Sundaland was in a tropical climate with two seasons.

12

Hot and cold springs available

113e, 117a

A lot of hot and cold springs are found in the volcanic region of Southeast Asia

13

Abundant of water benefit

of the annual rainfall

111c

The region of Southeast Asia is in a tropical climate, has many islands and mountains, which produce much rainfall.

14

Sun in the above, excellently attempered climate

111e, 112d

Tropical, warm climate in Southeast Asia 11.600 years ago (only 3 – 4 °C colder than now), frozen in other non-tropical regions

15

Fertile, best soil for agriculture and farming

111e, 113c

Due to many volcanos, much rainfall and warm climate, Southeast Asia is famous for its fertile soil, ideal for agriculture and farming.

16

Vast diversity of flora and fauna

114e, 115a, 115b

Southeast Asia is among the regions with most diverse and endemic flora and fauna in the world.

17

Elephant, horse, “bull” and dolphin

114e, 116e, 117c – 117e, 119b, 119d – 120a

Elephants, horses, bulls, water buffalos, dolphins and other tropical animals are found in Southeast Asia.

18

Abundant of food to sustain a civilization and to create an army

111e, 118e, 119a

Fertile soil, abundance of water and warm climate caused Sundaland to produce abundant of food, enough to sustain more than 20 million people and to create more than a million soldiers.

19

Advanced civilization in the era

24e, 25a

Large population and abundance of materials created technology, such as building of ships, citadel, canals, battle equipment and monumental buildings.

20

Earthquakes and “floods” from the sea (tsunami)

25c, 25d

108e, 111a, 112a

Southeast Asia is among the regions in the world with frequent and magnificent earthquakes and tsunamis.

21

Sunken ceaselessly (post-glacial sea level rise)

111b, 111c

Late glacial and postglacial sea level rise and land subsidence in Sundaland

22

The sea at the Atlantis capital “is now” (Solon’s time) impassable and impenetrable because of a “reef of clay” (coral reef), caused by “subsidence” of the island (sea level rise)

25d

Coral reefs grew on the solid structures due to the late glacial and postglacial sea level rise, ubiquitous  in the Java Sea.

23

The “Atlantis City”

is now under the sea

25d

Java Sea level within the last 11,600 years rose about 60 meters (200 feet).

B

Products (“Fruit”)

24

Two harvests each year, in “winter” (wet season) fed by rains and in “summer” (dry season) by irrigation from the canals

118e

The original rice farming in Southeast Asia is rainfed and simple irrigation from streams, producing two crops in a year.

25

Roots, herbage, woods and essences distilled from “fruit” and flower

115a

Southeast Asia is well-known for its spice products, including the extracted oil, as well as herbal medicines (jamu) and seasoning spices (bumbu).

26

Cultivated “fruit”, dried, for nourishment and any other, used for food – common name “grain”

115a

Paddy or rice

27

“Fruits” having a hard rind, affording drinks and meats and ointments

115b

Coconut

28

Chestnuts and the like, which furnish pleasure and amusement

115b

Coffee

29

“Fruits” which spoil with keeping, consoled after dinner

115b

Tape or tapai, a fermented cassava or rice

30

Wondrous and in infinite abundance

115b

Farming, agriculture and forestry products in Southeast Asia are miraculous and in great abundance.

C

Plain Near the Capital City

31

Immediately about and surrounding the city was a level plain

118a

A vast plain in southern Kalimantan 11.600 years ago

32

Surrounded by mountains which descended towards the sea

118a

The plain is surrounded by Muller-Schwaner and Meratus Mountains in the north and in the east.

33

Smooth and even

118a

The plain is smooth and even, and no visible mound on the whole plain. At present, the sea tides can penetrate inland as far as 160 km (100 mi) in the rivers.

34

The general shape was rectangular and oblong

118a, 118c

The shape of the plain is rectangular at the south and oblong at the north.

35

Extending in one direction 3,000 stadia (555 km, 345 mi), across the center inland 2,000 stadia (370 km, 230 mi)

118a

Its dimensions are almost exactly precise, 555 km (345 mi) long and 370 km (230 mi) across.

36

Looked towards the south, sheltered from the north

118b

It looks toward the Java Sea in the south and sheltered by Muller-Schwaner and Meratus Mountains on the north.

37

Surrounding mountains celebrated their number, size and beauty; many wealthy villages of country folk

118b

The Muller-Schwaner and Meratus Mountains consist of large and small hills. Prosperous villages provided by nature are on the plain.

38

Rivers, lakes and meadows – abundant food supply for every animal, wild or tame

118b

There are rivers, swamps and savannas, as well as diverse fauna on the plain.

39

Plenty of wood of various sorts – abundant for each and every kind of work

118b

Kalimantan consists mostly of forests, with a variety of quality wood.

D

Waterways on the Plain

D1

Perimeter Canal

40

Incredible in size, unexpected that they were artificial

118c

Rivers in southern Kalimantan (Barito, Kapuas, Murung, Kahayan and Sebangau) have fairly large sizes.

41

100 feet (30 m) deep, 1 stadium (185 m, 607 ft) wide, 10,000 stadia (1,850 km, 1,150 mi) long

118c

The flow capacity (from the cross section area) of the rivers is 5,600 m2 (60,300 ft2) in average, closely comparable to Plato’s description of 5,500 m2 (59,200 ft2). The perimeter of the plain 11.600 years ago is exactly the same, ie about 1,850 km (1,150 mi).

42

Received streams from the mountains

118d

The rivers are originated from Muller-Schwaner and Meratus Mountains.

D2

Inland Canals and Transverse Passages

43

Straight, about 100 ft (30 m) wide, 100 stadia (18.5 km, 11.5 mi) intervals and let off into the perimeter ditch

118d

The rivers in southern Kalimantan  are, in general view, parallel to each other and in the north-south direction. Their interval is about 20 km (11.5 mi), considered in close agreement to the Plato’s figure of 18.5 kilometers (11.5 miles)

44

Cut from one inland canal into another

118e

Numerous transverse passages connecting large rivers are found on the plain, locally known as anjir or antasan.

45

Means for transporting wood and products in ships

118e

The rivers in southern Kalimantan are used as inter-region transportation until today.

D3

Irrigation Canals

46

Tapping from the main canals

118e

The irrigation system in southern Kalimantan is known as the “anjir system”, where irrigation canals taps water from the rivers or anjirs to water the fields.

47

Supplied water to the land in “summer” (dry season) but rainfall in the “winter” (rainy season) yielding two crops in a year

118e

“Anjir system” combines rainfed and canal or river tapped irrigation, which produces two crops in a year.

E

Minerals and Rocks

48

“Brass”/“bronze” (copper, tin and zinc)

116b, 116c

Minerals forming brass or bronze (copper, tin and zinc) are abundant in Southeast Asia.

49

Tin

116b, 116c

Tin is abundant in Southeast Asia.

50

“Orichalcum”, more precious mineral than anything except gold, flashing, red color, abundant resources

114e, 116c, 116d

Zircon is abundant in southern and western Kalimantan,  can be made into high value gemstones, second to gold, flashing. Red zircon is called hyacinth.

51

Gold

114e, 116c, 116d, 116e

Gold is abundant in Kalimantan and generally in Southeast Asia.

52

Siver

116d, 116e

Silver is abundant in Southeast Asia.

53

White, black and red stones

116a, 116b

The igneous rocks in Bawean Island (a prototype of Atlantis Island) consist of acidic white, alkaline black-grey and ferro-oxide red rocks.

54

Hollowed out rock for double docks

116a, 116b

The igneous rocks in Bawean Island is hard and strong having enough natural strength to stand as roofs of the hollowed out double docks.

F

Myths and Traditions

55

“Poseidon” (sea or water god, law founder, driving sea creatures, supreme god in earlier time)

113c – 113e, 116c, 116d, 117b, 119c, 119d

Baruna (sea or water god, law founder, driving sea creatures, supreme god in earlier time)

56

“Heracles” (son of a the supreme god Zeus, outrageous birth, has insatiable appetites and being very rude, brutal and violent)

24e, 25c

108e, 114b

Kala (son of the supreme god Guru, outrageous birth, has insatiable appetites and being very rude, brutal and violent)

57

“Bull” (water buffalo) sacrifice

119d – 120c

Water buffalos are offered in sacrifice in the festivals of indigenous ethnics in Southeast and Central Asia, among others by the peoples of Dayak, Toraja, Sumba and Batak.

58

Temple or pyramid

116c, 116d, 116e, 117c, 119c

Punden berundak (earth and stone step pyramid) is the original culture of Southeast Asia and generally Austronesia. Temples are ubiquitous in the region.

59

Maritime activities

114d, 115c – 116a, 117d, 117e, 119b

Southeast Asian and generally Austronesian people are well-known for their maritime culture.

60

Transportation by waterways

118e

Boats and ships are adhered to the Austronesian cultures from the ancient time.

***

Copyright © Dhani Irwanto, 2015. All rights reserved.

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